$16.1 million to L-3 for remanufactured Bradley transmissions.
In the 1970s, middle eastern wars demonstrated that tanks without infantry screens were vulnerable to infantry with anti-tank missiles. Unfortunately, armored personnel carriers were easy prey for tanks, and sometimes had trouble keeping up with newer behemoths like the 60+ ton, 50+ mph M1 Abrams main battle tank. In response, the Americans rethought the armored personnel carrier, taking a page from the Soviet book. They created a more heavily armored, faster “Infantry Fighting Vehicle” named after WW2 General Omar “the soldier’s general” Bradley, and gave it an offensive punch of its own. M2/M3 tracked, armored IFVs can carry infantry – but they also have 25mm Bushmaster cannons, networked targeting sensors, and even TOW anti-armor or Stinger anti-aircraft missiles at their disposal.
Even well-serviced vehicles must suffer the pangs of age and wear, however, and the pace of electronics breakthroughs is far faster than the Army’s vehicle replacement cycle. The US Army plans to keep its Bradley fleet for some time to come, and new technologies have made it wise to upgrade part of that fleet while renewing the vehicles. Hence the remanufacture program, which complements the restore-only RESET programs DID has covered elsewhere.
Introduced in the 1980s during the Reagan defense build-up, the Bradleys were a departure from the usual mold of lightly armed Armored Personnel Carriers. They were heavily criticized for their expense, and accused of being both too heavy for rapid transport to crisis points and too lightly armored to hold their own against serious opposition. Even so, over 6,700 were produced, mostly for the US Army with a minor order on the side from the Saudis. Finally thrust into battle during the 1991 Desert Storm campaign, the Bradley’s combination of firepower, mobility, and protection made it a valuable asset and largely laid the debates to rest.
A widely upgraded fleet of Bradleys would reprise this role in Operation Iraqi Freedom, both during the deep in-country push that culminated in the “Thunder Run” into Baghdad, and in subsequent stabilization operations.
Today, many other nations employ IFVs, from older Russian BMP/BRDMs to modernized and up-gunned M113 APCs, to more modern options like BAE’s popular CV90 family and Germany’s new Puma IFV from KMW & Rheinmetall.
The Bradleys’ high level of protection against anti-tank rockets has proven to be a significant plus, and operational readiness has exceeded 94% in urban and cross-country missions that have covered more than 8 million miles. Its major weakness is a 175 gallon fuel tank in the belly, which is typically protected only by aluminum armor and can become a source of severe burns from land mine attacks. A number of Bradleys are receiving improved mine-resistant belly armor, but thus far the Bradleys are not being redesigned to carry fuel externally as part of the remanufacture and upgrade process.
Bradley vehicles carry a crew of 3 (commander, gunner and driver), plus additional soldiers in some variants. Overall, the Bradleys fulfills five critical mission roles for the US Army’s Heavy Brigade Combat Teams: infantry fighting vehicle, carries 6-7 troops as well (M2); cavalry fighting vehicle, carries 2 scouts as well (M3); fire support vehicle (A3 BFIST or M7 BFIST based on A2-ODS); battle command vehicle; and engineer squad vehicle (EBFV, or M2A2-ODS-E).
A Variant called the M6 Linebacker carried Stinger missiles and related sensors to serve as mobile short-range air defense for US armored formations, but for good or ill most Linebackers have been converted into M2A2-ODS vehicles under a February 2005 contract.
M*A2-ODS vehicles lack the full electronics, sensor set, and future upgradeability of the M*A3 vehicles; instead, they have their own set of off-the-shelf improvements over the base M*A2s that duplicate many of the A3 variants’ essential capabilities. Navigation that allows ODS vehicles to maneuver with more modern variants is provided by the addition of PGS/POSNAV. A new laser range-finder is integrated into both the new GPS system and new FBCB2 (aka. “Blue Force Tracker”) equipment, significantly improving their ability to designate and hand off targets.
Survivability gets a boost via the integration of Battlefield Combat Identification System and a Missile Countermeasure device, as well as applique reactive armor from the General Dynamics-RAFAEL partnership. Bench seats help the crew mount up and dismount faster. Finally, a 7th seat has been added to the ODS to support the 3×9 Mechanized Infantry Platoon organization.
The M7 BFIST (Bradley FIre Support Team) is a variant of the M2A2-ODS Bradley. It is used as an artillery forward observer vehicle and laser designator, providing major improvements in first-round artillery accuracy on a platform whose mobility and survivability is the same as the armored maneuver units it rides in. BFIST’s performance during Operation Iraqi Freedom was reported to be impressive. The M7’s successor is simply referred to as the Bradley A3 FIST or A3 BFIST, and incorporates all Bradley M*A3 features in addition to its suite of advanced targeting sensors and electronics.
The M*A3s are the most modern variants of the Bradley, with fully digitized computing, navigation, and communications equipment. On-board subsystem monitoring, diagnostics/ prognostics, and segregated electrical power are included in this upgrade, as are improved NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) protection and the addition of a 7th troop seat in the M2A3 variant. The A3 then adds enhanced sensors including IBAS 2nd generation FLIR (thermal imaging) with significantly greater range. Armor Magazine’s March 2005 issue relates this story from Iraq:
“Staff Sergeant Brian Flading, a 19D Operation Iraqi Freedom veteran, remembers an incident when his platoon was mortared one night in Balad. With the new FLIR, the crew was able to see the enemy shooting the mortars. His crew sent rounds downrange within three seconds of the mortar shot…”
The US Army plans to have more than 2,000 total Bradley A3s in its future fleet. Most of those vehicles will be converted to that standard through the remanufacture process.
BAE Systems works through its Public Private Partnership with Red River Army Depot (RRAD) in Texas to remanufacture and upgrade these vehicles. Initial disassembly and subsystem rebuild is performed at RRAD. Further disassembly and structural modifications is performed by BAE Systems in Fayette County, PA. The final assembly, integration and test is conducted at the BAE Systems facility in York, PA.
Unlike RESET programs, designed to replace all defective or worn parts and restore/service a vehicle back to pre-combat condition, remanufacture is a complete rebuild designed to return it to full “zero miles” condition, and install upgrades.
Unless otherwise specified, the U.S. Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command in Warren, MI manages the contract, and BAE Land Systems and Armaments is the recipient.
April 1/10: L-3 Communications Combat Propulsion Systems in Muskegon, MI received a $16.1 million firm-price with incentive and cost-plus-fixed-fee contract for 221 remanufactured Bradley transmissions, 2 control tests and incentive fee pool. Work is to be performed in Muskegon, MI (54%), and Texarkana, TX (46%) with an estimated completion date of Dec 31/13. For the order, 1 bid was solicited with 1 bid received by the US Army TACOM Contracting Center in Warren, MI (W56HZV-09-C-0098).
Sept 23/09: L-3 Communications Combat Propulsion Systems in Muskegon, MI received a $33.1 million firm-fixed-price with Incentive and cost-plus-fixed-fee contract for 94 remanufactured Bradley transmissions and parts, 20 new Bradley transmissions, 87 repaired Bradley transmissions, 979 parts kits to rebuild Bradley transmissions, 20,000 hours of system technical support, and $5.2 million in management support.
Work is to be performed in Texarkana, TX (43%), Muskegon, MI (42%) and Huddersfield, UK (15%) with an estimated completion date of Dec 30/11. One bid solicited with one bid received by the U.S. Army TACOM LCMC in Warren, MI (W56HZV-09-C-0098).
April 6/09: Raytheon Network-Centric Systems in McKinney, TX announces $163.5 million worth of contracts from BAE for 822 advanced thermal sighting systems: a $123 million order for 620 Commander’s Independent Viewer block 1 units on Feb 20/09, and a $40.5 million award for 202 units on Feb 26/09. The systems will be installed on Bradley M*A3 vehicles.
Raytheon’s CIV is a 2nd-generation infrared vision system that provides the commander with a 360-degree battlefield view. It complements sub-systems like DRS’ IBAS (Improved Bradley Acquisition System), and has the same extended-range capabilities. By providing the commander and gunner with independent sights, it allows the vehicle to operate in “hunter-killer” mode, with the gunner engaging one target while the commander surveys the situation and queues up the next victim.
Sept 22/08: BAE announces a a $742 million U.S. Army contract to remanufacture and upgrade 326 Bradley vehicles. The award exercises an option in the contract announced on July 8/08, and brings the total value of BAE Systems’ 2008 Bradley remanufacturing contracts to $1.3 billion for 578 vehicles.
Under this award, BAE Systems will remanufacture another 189 M2A3 IFVs (51 of which which will covert to M3A3 cavalry vehicles), 115 M3A3 cavalry vehicles, and 22 M3A3 Bradley Fire Support Team (BFIST) vehicles.
These Bradley vehicles will be equipped with improved armor designed to resist land mine attacks, Bradley Urban Survivability Kits, and several engineering changes designed to increase soldier survivability. The company will also provide more than 200 different types of spare parts in varying quantities. Work under the contract will begin immediately by the existing workforce, with deliveries ending in February 2011.
July 8/08: BAE announces a $538 million U.S. Army contract to remanufacture 252 Bradley vehicles: 160 M2A3 vehicles, 60 M3A3 cavalry vehicles and 32 M3A3 Bradley Fire Support Team (BFIST) vehicles in conjunction with the Red River Army Depot. The company will also provide 200 different types of spare parts, in varying quantities.
Work under the contract will begin immediately, with deliveries ending in June 2010.
Sept 15/08: BAE Systems announces an $11 million contract from the U.S. Army to purchase and install Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Mine Armor Kits on 433 Bradley Combat Systems vehicles. This award also includes the installation work for 116 kits previously purchased under this contract. When combined with previous awards, this modification brings the total contract value to $96 million for Bradley IED Mine Armor Kits.
Work under the contract will be conducted at various field installation sites with deliveries scheduled from December 2008 through March 2009.
March 31/08: L-3 Communications Corp. received a $20.8 million firm-fixed price contract for remanufactured Bradley Fighting Vehicle Systems transmissions. Work will be performed in Muskegon, MI and is expected to be complete by Aug 4/09. Web bids were solicited on Oct 17/07, and 1 bid was received by U.S. Army TACOM Life Cycle Management Command in Warren, MI (W56HZV-08-C-0119).
July 23/07: BAE announces a pair of contract modifications from the U.S. Army TACOM Life Cycle Management Command, totaling $411.7 million.
Under the first contract, BAE Systems will upgrade 172 Bradleys to the A3 baseline: 108 M2A2 Infantry Fighting Vehicles, 60 M3A2 Cavalry Fighting Vehicles and 4 M7 FIST Fire Support Team Vehicles. The second contract calls for BAE Systems to provide spare parts for Bradley A3 Combat Systems. Deliveries for both contracts are scheduled to begin in October 2009, and continue through February 2010.
These contracts, when combined with the $1.16 billion contract awarded in November 2006 for the remanufacture and upgrade of 610 Bradley Combat Systems, bring the total value of BAE Systems Bradley work to $3.9 billion for Fiscal Years 2005 – 2007.
Feb 14/07: The full delivery order amount of $16 million as part of a firm-fixed-price contract for the remanufacture and upgrade of 8 Vehicles to M2A3 standard, and return to 0 Mile Condition. Work will be performed in York, PA (60%), Fayette, PA (8%), Santa Clara, CA (28%), and Aiken, SC (4%), and is expected to be complete by May 31, 2009. This was a sole source contract initiated on Feb. 10, 2006 (W56HZV-05-G-0005).
Nov 27/06: BAE Systems in York, PA received the full delivery order amount of $1.01 billion as part of a firm-fixed-price contract to remanufacture of 490 total Bradleys into M2A3 Infantry Fighting Vehicle, M3A3 Cavalry Fighting Vehicle scouts, and A3 BFIST targeting and fire control vehicle configurations. Work will begin immediately, and will be performed in York, PA (60%), Fayette, PA (8%), Santa Clara, CA (28%), and Aiken, SC (4%). Deliveries are scheduled to begin in April 2008, and the contract is expected to be complete by May 31, 2009. This was a sole source contract initiated on Feb. 10, 2006 (W56HZV-05-G-0005).
Nov 27/06: BAE Systems in York, PA received the full delivery order amount of $118.7 million as part of a firm-fixed-price contract to remanufacture 120 total Bradleys to M2A2-ODS and M3A2-ODS configurations. Work will begin immediately, and will be performed in York, PA (60%), Fayette, PA (8%), Santa Clara, CA (28%), and Aiken, SC (4%), and is expected to be complete by May 31, 2009. Deliveries are scheduled to begin in April 2008, and the contract is expected to be complete by May 31, 2009. This was a sole source contract initiated on Feb. 10, 2006 (W56HZV-05-G-0005).
July 28/06: The 2 orders announced on this day included full delivery order amounts of $192.6 million and $30.9 million [TL.= $223.5 million] as part of a firm-fixed-price contract for FY 2006 remanufacture and upgrade of Bradley vehicles. Work will be performed in York, PA (83%), Aiken, SC (5%), San Jose, CA (8%), and Fayette, PA (4%), and is expected to be complete by Dec. 31, 2008. This will be performed under a sole source contract initiated on May 17, 2006 (W56HZV-05-G-0005).
BAE Systems, in partnership with Red River Army Depot (RRAD), will remanufacture and upgrade a total of 96 vehicles whose final configurations will be: 57 Bradley A3 vehicles in infantry (M2A3) and cavalry (M3A3) configurations, 16 Bradley A3 Fire Support Team (FIST) vehicles, and 23 M7 BFIST vehicles based on the M2A2-ODS.
June 27/05: See BAE’s June 27, 2005 release covering all of the remanufacturing work announced on DefenseLINK June 23, 2005. DID also covered this set. Over $1.1 billion worth of contracts encompassed:
- 450 older Bradleys remanufactured to Bradley A3 status – the total value of this delivery order also incorporates 55 vehicles and $71.5 million awarded in March, 2005.
- 50 vehicles remanufactured to Bradley A2-ODS status, plus kits to convert 100 more vehicles to the A2-ODS configuration.
- 33 vehicles remanufactured to Bradley Fire Support Team (BFIST) vehicles
- Spares for Bradley A3 vehicles (not noted below, as not part of the remanufacture program)
- BAE Systems will also provide 120 Commander’s Independent Viewers for 120 Bradley vehicles ordered under a contract modification.
June 23/05: United Defense LP (now part of BAE Systems) in York, PA received a delivery order amount of $896.4 million as part of a $967.9 million firm-fixed-price contract for the remanufacture of Bradley A3 vehicles. Work will be performed in York, PA (83%), San Jose, CA (8%), Aiken, SC (5%), and Fayette, PA (4%), and is expected to be complete by Jan. 31, 2008. This was a sole source contract initiated on March 1, 2005 (W56HZV-05-G-0005).
June 23/05: United Defense LP (now part of BAE Systems) in York, PA received the full delivery order amount of $78.4 million as part of a firm-fixed-price contract for the remanufacture of M*A2 Operation Desert Storm vehicles and conversion kits. Work will be performed in York, PA (83%), San Jose, CA (8%), Aiken, SC (5%), and Fayette, PA (4%), and is expected to be complete by Jan. 31, 2008. This was a sole source contract initiated on March 1, 2005 (W56HZV-05-G-0005).
June 23/05: United Defense LP (now part of BAE Systems) in York, PA received the full delivery order amount of $31.4 million as part of a firm-fixed-price contract for the remanufacture of M7 Bradley Fire Support Team Vehicles. Work will be performed in York, PA (83%), San Jose, CA (8%), Aiken, SC (5%), and Fayette, PA (4%), and is expected to be complete by Jan. 31, 2008. This was a sole source contract initiated on March 1, 2005 (W56HZV-05-G-0005).
June 23/05: United Defense LP (now part of BAE Systems) in York, PA received a $30.6 million modification to a firm-fixed-price contract for the commander’s independent viewers. Work will be performed in York, PA (83%), San Jose, CA (8%), Aiken, SC (5%), and Fayette, PA (4%), and is expected to be complete by Jan. 31, 2008. This was a sole source contract initiated on March 1, 2005 (DAAE07-01-C-M016).
Sept 24/99: United Defense LP (now part of BAE Systems) in York, PA received a $43.8 million modification to cost-plus-fixed-fee contract DAAE07-96-C-X036, to acquire the effort necessary to remanufacture/ convert 53 Bradley Fighting Vehicles from an M3A0 configuration to an M3A2-ODS configuration. Work will be performed in York, PA and is expected to be complete by Nov. 30, 2001.
Dec 21/98: United Defense LP (now part of BAE Systems) in York, PA received a $114.6 million modification to a firm-fixed-price contract for the remanufacture of 27 M2A2 vehicles to the upgraded M2A3 configuration, remanufacture of 43 M3A2 vehicles to the upgraded M3A3 configuration, and the purchase of material/support for three M2A3 vehicles (the price for an option to build these three vehicles is not included in this contract action). Work will be performed in York, PA and is expected to be complete by March 31, 2001. This is a sole source contract initiated on Jan. 30, 1998 (DAAE07-96-C-X036).